Ware, A & M Skidmore (eds. 2023) After the Coup: Myanmar’s Political & Humanitarian Crises, ANU Press.ISBN: 9781760466138.

Myanmar – A Political Lexicon

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 January 2024

Nick Cheesman


Myanmar: A Political Lexicon is a critical inquiry into how words animate politics. Across sixteen entries the lexicon stages dialogues about political speech and action in this country at the nexus of South, East and Southeast Asia. This Element offers readers venues in which to consider the history and contingency of ideas like power, race, patriarchy and revolution. Contention over these and other ideas, it shows, does not reflect the political world in which Myanmar’s people live—it realizes it.

The copy of the book can be found here

This e-paper is part of our dossier “Young voices on the rise – Youth and democracy in the Asia-Pacific region”.
The Myanmar military coup, on 1 February 2021, devastated the country and the youth have played a leading role in protesting and resisting the military dictatorship. This paper explores Myanmar youth’s motivations for their resistance to the 1 February coup, their imaginations of post-revolution society, and their goals. The paper also attempts to evaluate the many challenges that youth activists are facing in post-coup Myanmar – a state that has again become severely repressive. Based on 34 individual interviews with youth activists involved in the peaceful anti-coup resistance movement in Myanmar, this paper asks: What are the conceptualisations, motivations and expectations held by youth activists participating in the peaceful 2021 anti-coup movement, and what challenges do they face?
Please click the link for full paper.
The opinions expressed in this e-paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung European Union, Brussels.

Myanmar’s Military Mindset

By Dr Andrew Selth

Since the violent overthrow of Myanmar’s elected government on 1 February 2021 it has become imperative to understand better the mindset of the military which has dominated the country for several decades. An important research contribution examining the thinking and operations of Tatmadaw was written by Dr Andrew Selth in his paper “Myanmar’s Military Mindset”, published on 30 September 2021 by the Griffith Asia Institute.

Dr Andrew Selth is an Adjunct Professor at the Griffith Asia Institute, in Brisbane. He has been studying international security issues and Asian affairs for nearly 50 years, as a diplomat, strategic intelligence analyst and research scholar. Dr Selth has published 10 books, 25 research papers and more than 50 peer-reviewed works, most of them about Myanmar and related subjects. He has also contributed to the public debate on Myanmar through numerous articles in newspapers, magazines and various online fora.

Free download the paper here.

Moving Around Myanmar

by Tony Waters, Ashley South, Chayan Vaddhanaphuti & Luke Corbin

AMI has a long history of cooperation with IDRC in Canada and its K4DM initiative. The following is a book entitled “Moving Around Myanmar: Migration in, from and back to Burma”, published in October 2021.
FYI – Please join us in congratulating Prof. Chayan Vaddhanaphuti, his team at the Regional Center for Sustainable Development, Chiang Mai University, and all authors, who, against all odds, worked very hard to put together this admirable collection of papers. Their efforts to promote good scholarship are rooted in the shared belief that a new generation of Burmese free thinkers & doers can contribute to a democratic future for Myanmar. Download your free copy here.



APRIL 2021

This survey was 100% anonymous in order to ensure the confidentiality of data and to ensure that companies participating in it would answer as truthfully as possible.

For the same reason, and to avoid any instrumentalization of this survey for political reasons, it was decided to limit the participation to Members of these 10 Chambers of Commerce in Myanmar.




This open access book focuses on the Salween River, shared by China, Myanmar (Burma), and Thailand, that is increasingly at the heart of pressing regional development debates. The basin supports the livelihoods of over 10 million people, and within it there is great socio-economic, cultural and political diversity. The basin is witnessing intensifying dynamics of resource extraction, alongside large dam construction, conservation and development intervention, that is unfolding within a complex terrain of local, national and transnational governance. With a focus on the contested politics of water and associated resources in the Salween basin, this book offers a collection of empirical case studies that highlights local knowledge and perspectives. Given the paucity of grounded social science studies in this contested basin, this book provides conceptual insights at the intersection of resource governance, development, and politics of knowledge relevant to researchers, policy-makers and practitioners at a time when rapid change is underway.

– Fills a significant knowledge gap on a major river in Southeast Asia, with empirical and conceptual contributions

– Inter-disciplinary perspective and by a range of writers, including academics, policy-makers and civil society researchers, the majority from within Southeast Asia

– New policy insights on a river at the cross-roads of a major political and development transition

Link (free and open access):

Co-edited by Dr Carl Middleton (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok) and Dr Vanessa Lamb (University of Melbourne)

Prof. Ian Holliday, an AMI member who is Vice President and Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Teaching and Learning) at The University of Hong Kong, has co-authored with Prof. Roman David, Head of the Department of Sociology and Social Policy at Lingnan University Hong Kong a book entitled “Liberalism & Democracy in Myanmar”.  As the flyer shows, it is available from Oxford University Press but it’s also available through Amazon and other retailers.  The book will be published in Burmese soon, at a much lower price.


A year ago, violence spiralled out of control in Myanmar causing 671,500 Rohingya Muslims to flee to Bangladesh in a matter of months. Why? Did the army just drive these people out—is this a textbook example ethnic cleansing? Otherwise, what could possibly explain such a massive movement of people? What motivates and drives such horrific conflict? If we include those who had already fled, there are now 1.1 million Rohingya refugees living in Bangladesh. What are the prospects of their return? How should the international community respond, and what can we do about it?

This book was written by Dr Anthony Ware Senior Lecturer in International & Community Development, Deakin University and Dr Costas Laoutides Senior Lecturer in International Relations, Deakin University. The link can be seen at…/myanmars-rohingya-conflict.



This article, published in The Walters Art Museum Journal, volume 73 of 2018, presents a superb description of the “sumptuary laws” which governed royal clothing and protocol during the time of the Myanmar kings. So

me of that still applies to formal occasions in Myanmar and the article helps explain some of the concepts within which kingship and governmental authority functioned in Amerapura and then Mandala

The link is at…/upl…/2018/04/jwam_73_04_24_2018.pdfy at the time of the British conquest of the kingdom in 1885. The author, Dr Sylvia Fraser-Lu is a leading expert on Buddhist art and textiles and is a member of AMI. She and The Walters Art Museum have generously consented to our publication of this link. The article starts at page 10 of this volume of the Journal.

Burma (Myanmar) since the 1988 uprising: A select bibliography (Third edition)

In 2012 the Griffith Asia Institute’s Andrew Selth published a select bibliography entitled Burma (Myanmar) Since the 1988 Uprising. It listed 928 books and reports that had been produced in English, and in hard copy, since 1988. In response to popular demand a second edition was published in 2015, listing 1318 works. The aim of the bibliography remained the same, namely to provide academics, officials, students and members of the general public with an easily accessible list of works on Myanmar that had been produced over the past three decades. A third edition of this bibliography has just been released, both in hard copy and online. Reflecting the continued outpouring of publications about Myanmar in English, it lists 2133 works.

An introduction can be downloaded from

The full publication can be downloaded from the Griffith Asia Institute website at

Many thanks to Andrew and the Griffith Asia Institute for this important contribution to understanding Myanmar since 1988.

2018 Myanmar Economic Monitor – introductory remarks by U Myint

U Myint spoke on 17 May 2018 at the event at the Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (UMFCCI) and World Bank Joint Launch of the 2018 edition of the Monitor.  He is one of Myanmar’s leading economists and is now a Director of the Tun Bank, having been chief economic adviser to President U Thein Sein and many other national leaders.

Download full PDF: Myanmar Economic Monitor 2018 – U Myint

Myanmar: Growth amidst uncertainty

Myanmar’s economy performed better in 2017/18 with a modest growth acceleration that partially reversed the deterioration experienced in 2016/17. While the outlook remains positive, risks have intensified. The economy experienced a broad-based increase in real GDP growth to 6.4 percent in 2017/181 from 5.9 percent in 2016/17. Inflation moderated from 7 percent in 2016/17 to 5.5 percent in 2017/18. The exchange rate was stable and appreciated slightly towards the end of the year, the current account deficit narrowed slightly on strong export growth, and the fiscal deficit also narrowed in the first three quarters of the fiscal year. While performance remains strong and the macroeconomic outlook is positive, there are concerns that the slow pace of reforms, vulnerabilities in the financial sector, and limited progress in addressing the humanitarian crisis in Rakhine are starting to affect business sentiment and could weaken performance. External risks from uncertainty in global trade policy and in commodity prices intensify the downside risks to the growth outlook. The Government of Myanmar is in a position to improve Myanmar’s economic outlook. For instance, implementing the cogent new Myanmar Sustainable Development Plan (MSDP), collecting more revenue and spending it better, and providing greater policy certainty and a simpler operating environment for businesses can support investment and economic prospects, as evidenced by Special Topic analysis in this report.

Download Executive Summary PDF: MEM ES Update

The full report PDF is available from

Sustainable Development in Livelihood of Shan National ( Zaw Ti Gone Village, Hmwe Bi Township, Yangon, Myanmar)

Author: Professor Lwin Lwin Mon, Department of Anthropology, Yadanarbon University, Mandalay

Abstract: The objectives of this research are: to increase income for the local economic development, to create income generating activities for local people and to promote livelihood for local people. Expected outcome of this research is to make other ethnic groups can understand and value on the various socio-cultural assets based on livelihood of Shan Nationals and promote the national unity and solidarity with the knowledge of their traditional customs and beliefs. Research area is in Zaw-ti-gone village, Hmwe Bi Township, Yangon, Myanmar. In this research, participatory methods were used for conducting collecting data. Specific research tools included Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), participant observation method, key Informants Interview ( KII), In-depth Interview(IDI), Focus Group Discussion (FGD), transect walk, kinship  diagram, social mapping (use to find out social status of village people; richest, well-to-do people, poor, poorest). These data were analyzed from Cultural Anthropology point of view. The ethical clearance from the informants’ consents was also got. Duration of this research was from February to  December 2013.

Shan ethnic people living in the Zaw-ti-gone village have an industry reflecting skills and the village men and women engaged in some occupations to obtain the sustainable development in their livelihood. Various types of livelihood such as  betel leaves farming, seasonal crops, flower gardening, paddy fields, animal husbandry, migrant workers and daily workers for chicken husbandry, carpenters, making Shan traditional long drum (Oo-si) and playing performance, sewing traditional dress (Lon-gyi) and broom making were  conducted. Moreover, retired government staffs get a pension every month, and some villagers manage small shop in village also got some incomes. Most of the villagers’ income is highly affected by its weather condition.

After doing this research, one can learn that the income for the local economic development can gradually increase based on their private skills and their impact on maintaining their ethnic identity. Moreover, these local people can create the income generating activities more by themselves and can promote their livelihood by making mutual understanding with other ethnic groups, enhancing the value on the various socio-cultural assets more based on livelihood of Shan Nationals. By doing so, they can also enhance the national unity and solidarity with the knowledge of their traditional customs and beliefs based on their own livelihood strategies.

Keywords: local economic development, socio-cultural assets, traditional customs and beliefs, industry reflecting skills, sustainable development in their livelihood.

Download full PDF: Lwin Lwin Mon 2016

Passing the Mace from the Myanmar’s First to the Second Legislature

15 February 2016

Author: Chit Win, Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, ANU College of the Asia & the Pacific, The Australian National University

Abstract: When the five year term of the first legislature “Hluttaw” in Myanmar ends in January 2016, it will be remembered as a robust legislature acting as an opposition to the executive. The second legislature of Myanmar is set to be totally different from the first one in every aspect.  This paper looks at three key defining features of the first legislature namely non-partisanship, the role of the Speakers and the relationship with the executive and how much of these would be embedded or changed when the mace of the first term of the Hluttaw is passed to the second.

Download full PDF: AMI Conference_Chit Win