Title: Sustainable Development in Livelihood of Shan National ( Zaw Ti Gone Village, Hmwe Bi Township, Yangon, Myanmar)
Author: Professor Lwin Lwin Mon, Department of Anthropology, Yadanarbon University, Mandalay
Abstract: The objectives of this research are: to increase income for the local economic development, to create income generating activities for local people and to promote livelihood for local people. Expected outcome of this research is to make other ethnic groups can understand and value on the various socio-cultural assets based on livelihood of Shan Nationals and promote the national unity and solidarity with the knowledge of their traditional customs and beliefs. Research area is in Zaw-ti-gone village, Hmwe Bi Township, Yangon, Myanmar. In this research, participatory methods were used for conducting collecting data. Specific research tools included Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), participant observation method, key Informants Interview ( KII), In-depth Interview(IDI), Focus Group Discussion (FGD), transect walk, kinship diagram, social mapping (use to find out social status of village people; richest, well-to-do people, poor, poorest). These data were analyzed from Cultural Anthropology point of view. The ethical clearance from the informants’ consents was also got. Duration of this research was from February to December 2013.
Shan ethnic people living in the Zaw-ti-gone village have an industry reflecting skills and the village men and women engaged in some occupations to obtain the sustainable development in their livelihood. Various types of livelihood such as betel leaves farming, seasonal crops, flower gardening, paddy fields, animal husbandry, migrant workers and daily workers for chicken husbandry, carpenters, making Shan traditional long drum (Oo-si) and playing performance, sewing traditional dress (Lon-gyi) and broom making were conducted. Moreover, retired government staffs get a pension every month, and some villagers manage small shop in village also got some incomes. Most of the villagers’ income is highly affected by its weather condition.
After doing this research, one can learn that the income for the local economic development can gradually increase based on their private skills and their impact on maintaining their ethnic identity. Moreover, these local people can create the income generating activities more by themselves and can promote their livelihood by making mutual understanding with other ethnic groups, enhancing the value on the various socio-cultural assets more based on livelihood of Shan Nationals. By doing so, they can also enhance the national unity and solidarity with the knowledge of their traditional customs and beliefs based on their own livelihood strategies.
Keywords: local economic development, socio-cultural assets, traditional customs and beliefs, industry reflecting skills, sustainable development in their livelihood.
Download full PDF: Lwin Lwin Mon 2016
Title: Passing the Mace from the Myanmar’s First to the Second Legislature
Author: Chit Win, Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, ANU College of the Asia & the Pacific, The Australian National University
Abstract: When the five year term of the first legislature “Hluttaw” in Myanmar ends in January 2016, it will be remembered as a robust legislature acting as an opposition to the executive. The second legislature of Myanmar is set to be totally different from the first one in every aspect. This paper looks at three key defining features of the first legislature namely non-partisanship, the role of the Speakers and the relationship with the executive and how much of these would be embedded or changed when the mace of the first term of the Hluttaw is passed to the second.
Download full PDF: ChitWin20160215